Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes Testing Algorithm

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are diseases that occur due to the remote effects of tumors (usually malignant), and include small cell lung cancer (SCLC), thymoma, neuroblastoma, ovarian, breast, testicular, and Hodgkin lymphoma. A paraneoplastic neurological syndrome may be suspected if neurologic disease is present, whether there is evidence of malignancy or not. An initial workup includes evaluating for infection and metabolic abnormalities; if neither are present, antibody testing may be considered.