Although acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are interrelated and may occur simultaneously, the recommended testing and diagnostic criteria for these forms of kidney impairment differ. Serum creatinine and urinary output measurement, along with appropriate etiologic testing, are used to evaluate suspected AKI. When CKD is suspected, initial evaluation includes estimated glomerular filtration rate derived from creatinine (eGFRcr), urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR), serum cystatin C, and other etiologic testing as needed.
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