Thyroid cancers are usually detected as nodules found during physical examinations or as incidental findings on imaging. If a malignancy is confirmed or suspected based on cytology, or if cytology is indeterminate, pre- and postoperative histologic examination and testing for molecular markers can be used to confirm the diagnosis, differentiate between thyroid cancer subtypes, inform prognosis, and guide treatment. If a familial syndrome is suspected, germline testing may be warranted.
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