- Preferred test for evaluating severely immunocompromised (eg, BMT) or critically ill (ICU) patients with respiratory symptoms.
- Test detects influenza A, influenza B, RSV, human metapneumovirus, human rhinovirus, and adenovirus.
- Detects and differentiates parainfluenza 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Qualitative Polymerase Chain Reaction
- Follow-up test for patients with documented influenza A.
- Not a first-line test for the detection of suspected influenza in most clinical situations.
- Detect and subtype the two predominant strains of circulating influenza A (H1N1 and H3N2).
Viral respiratory tract infections are the most common diseases affecting humans worldwide. Respiratory viruses can be associated with both self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections (eg, the common cold) and more severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) (eg, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonitis, pneumonia). LRTIs are a major cause of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality in infants and the elderly and are associated with significant disease burden.
- Viral infections cause ~80% of respiratory tract disease; mixed infections account for ~20 percent infection in adults, 60% in children
- Symptomatic disease varies by viral type and patient age
- Highest rates occur in young and elderly populations with widely varying outcomes
- Seasonal influenza causes a large proportion of viral respiratory disease
- Median incidence of ~8% in U.S. 2010 to 2016
Symptoms general occur within 1-3 days of exposure and last 7-14 days.
|Upper respiratory infections||
|Lower respiratory infectionsb||
Shortness of breath
aEspecially in children
bOverlap with upper infection
- Does not rule out the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors in patient specimen
- Does not detect assay-specific nucleic acid in concentrations below level of detection by assay
Jain S, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. children. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(9):835-845.
Self WH, Williams DJ, Zhu Y, et al. Respiratory viral detection in children and adults: Comparing asymptomatic controls and patients with community-acquired pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 2016;213(4):584-591.
Tokars JI, Olsen SJ, Reed C. Seasonal incidence of symptomatic influenza in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66(10):1511-1518.