Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disability, and Autism Spectrum Disorder Laboratory Testing - Neurocognitive Impairments
Developmental delay (DD) is defined as any significant lag in a child's physical, cognitive, emotional, or social maturity when compared to established norms. Intellectual disability (ID) is classified by neurocognitive impairments (intelligence quotient [IQ] <70 diagnosed before age 18 years of age) as well as significant limitations in adaptive living skills, including social, communication, work, leisure, and daily living skills. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a neurodevelopmental continuum with varying degrees of social impairment, including communication difficulties, repetitive behavior, and/or a restricted range of interests. ASDs are typically detected by parents and observers based on identification of abnormal interactions and behaviors. Routine pediatric screening may identify a globally delayed child and spur investigation of the underlying etiology.
Laboratory testing should be considered as part of a comprehensive evaluation for individuals with ASD and/or DD/ID (with or without comorbidities) to assist with decisions about treatment and management. Chromosomal microarray (CMA) offers the highest estimated diagnostic yield (~15-20%) in individuals with unexplained DD/ID, ASD, and multiple congenital anomalies (MCAs), and is preferred to karyotyping as the first-tier test. Screening for fragile X syndrome (FXS) and, in some situations, metabolic testing is also recommended. Refer to the Testing for Genetic Syndromes Related to Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disability, and Autism Spectrum Disorder Algorithm for suggested tiered testing approaches.
Last Update: January 2019