Thyroid Disease Testing

Thyroid disease refers to any dysfunction of the thyroid gland. This dysfunction may be due to a variety of etiologies, including autoimmune processes (eg, Graves disease, Hashimoto disease), thyroid cancer, specific drugs (eg, amiodarone, kinase inhibitors, lithium), viral infection, or iodine deficiency, among other causes.   Thyroid disease is classified as hypothyroidism (insufficient thyroid hormone) or hyperthyroidism (excess thyroid hormone).   Because the clinical signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are nonspecific, laboratory testing is required for diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis is required for appropriate treatment.   Laboratory testing for thyroid disease in pregnancy is particularly challenging, and testing recommendations differ from those for nonpregnant patients.  The preferred initial test for thyroid disease is thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with reflex to free thyroxine (free T4) testing. Results from these tests are used to guide additional testing.

 

Initial Evaluation of Thyroid Function


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Analytical Considerations in the Evaluation of Thyroid Function


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Hypothyroidism


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Thyrotoxicosis - Hyperthyroidism


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Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy


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Autoimmune Thyroiditis


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Thyroid Nodules


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Thyroid Cancer


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Medical Experts

Contributor

Balogun

Kayode A. Balogun, PhD
Kayode A. Balogun, PhD
Clinical Chemistry Fellow, Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine
Contributor

References