Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia - ALL

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an aggressive type of leukemia of either B- or T-lineage immature lymphoid cells. ALL is primarily a childhood disease (75% of all cases occur in children younger than 6 years of age ) and follows a bimodal distribution; the first peak occurs between 3 and 5 years of age and the second in adults over 50 years of age.  Prognosis can be inferred from age and white blood cell (WBC) count at diagnosis. Adults and those with high WBC counts typically have a poorer prognosis.  An initial ALL workup generally involves CBC testing, coagulation studies, and chemistry profiles; definitive diagnosis requires demonstration of ≥20% bone marrow lymphoblasts in bone marrow aspirate or biopsy.  Morphology, cytogenetics, and immunophenotyping allow for identification of recurrent genetic abnormalities that inform risk stratification, treatment planning, and monitoring. 

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Last Update: October 2018