Neuroblastomas are solid tumors of the neuroendocrine system and the most common extracranial solid tumor in infants and children. Initial laboratory testing includes vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) urine tests. Diagnosis requires tumor biopsy or positive bone marrow with increased urinary catecholamines. Neuroblastomas may regress spontaneously or may progress to death, despite maximal treatment. Because of this difference in prognosis, significant investigation has been performed to define high-risk indicators, such as imaging characteristics, surgical features, histopathology, cytogenetics characteristics, and molecular genetics features.

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Content Review: 
April 2018

Last Update: October 2019