Anemia of Chronic Disease - Anemia of Inflammation
Anemia of chronic disease (ACD), also known as anemia of inflammation (AI), is a functional anemia of iron-restricted erythropoiesis related to chronic diseases, such as infections, autoimmune diseases, cancer, and end-organ failure. ACD/AI is the second most common form of anemia after iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and the most common form of anemia in hospitalized or critically ill patients. Testing for ACD/AI includes standard blood parameter measurements, a peripheral blood smear, iron studies, testing to exclude other possible diagnoses, and in some cases, bone marrow biopsy. ACD/AI testing should be interpreted in the appropriate clinical context. Treatment for ACD/AI entails treatment of the underlying disease or disorder; however, this is often not feasible. Iron therapy and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents may be used to alleviate anemia and thereby improve patient quality of life.
Last Update: March 2019